Spotlight on Apples

Apples
Apples

An apple a day is perhaps one of the most delicious prescriptions ever made.  An apple contains a dose of pectin, the soluble fiber that thickens jellies and helps lower artery-damaging LDL (bad) cholesterol.  Apples also contain a mix of antioxidants.  Flavonoids, such as quercetin, prevent LDL cholesterol from being oxidized to a more dangerous form.

Apples have skin that’s loaded with nutrients.  For instance, the peel has six times the antioxidant power of the flesh.  Also, about two-thirds of an apple’s fiber is found in the peel.  Apples come in naturally gorgeous shades of green, golden yellow, red-orange and deep crimson

Some Key Scientific Studies

Some important scientific studies that reveal apples’ benefits are:

U.S. Study (2011): Florida State University researchers evaluated the long-term cardio-protective effects of daily consumption of apple in postmenopausal women.  They randomly assigned 160 women ages 45-65 to one of two dietary intervention groups: One ate dried apples (75 g/day for 1 year), and the other ate dried prunes everyday for a year.  Blood samples were taken at 3, 6, and 12 months.  Within 6 months, the apple-eating women experienced a 23% reduction in LDL (bad) cholesterol.  Another advantage is that the extra 240 calories a day did not lead to weight gain in the women.  In fact the women lost on, average, 3.3. lbs.

Dutch Study (2011): Researchers studied the diets of over 20,000 adults, with an average age of 41.  At the start of the study, all participants were free of cardiovascular disease.  Researchers examined the links between fruits and vegetable color group consumption and 10-year stroke incidence.  Fruits and vegetables were classified into four groups: Green (dark leafy vegetables, cabbages), Orange/Yellow (mostly citrus fruits), Red/Purple (mostly red vegetables), and White (mostly apples and pears).  During the 10-year study, 233 strokes were documented, and only white fruits and vegetables were linked to lower incidence of stroke.  In fact the risk of stroke incidence was 52 percent lower for people with a high intake of white fruits and vegetables compared to those with low intake.

Reasons to Eat Apples

  1. Apples are nutritious.  Apples contain vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants.  One medium apple contains about 72 calories and has about 3 g of soluble fiber in the form of pectin.  An apple counts as one cup of fruit towards your daily fruit quota (around 2 cups on a 2,000-calorie diet).
  2. Apples can help prevent high blood pressure.  Apples contain potassium which helps our arteries dilate, lowering blood pressure.  Also quercetin, an antioxidant in apples, works with the cells in the inner lining (endothelium) of our arteries to make them dilate which lowers blood pressure.
  3. Apples lower cholesterol.  Apples contain pectin (about 3 g per medium apple), a soluble fiber, that binds with cholesterol in our gut and prevents it from being absorbed into our bloodstream.  This reduces risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.
  4. Apples protect against colon cancer.  According to research from Germany, the fiber in apples ferments in the colon and produces chemicals that fight the formation of cancer cells.
  5. Apples provide bone protection.  Researchers believe that a flavonoid called phloridzin, found only in apples, may protect post-menopausal women from osteoporosis and also increase bone density.  Apple also contain boron which strengthens bones.
  6. Apples may help stave off Alzheimer’s disease.  Apples contain quercetin, a powerful antioxidant that protects brain cells from degeneration in rats and may do the same in humans.
  7. Apples may lower cardiovascular disease risk.  Apples help prevent the oxidation of cholesterol in our arteries thus reducing atherosclerosis.  This reduction in hardening of the arteries lowers our risk of cardiovascular disease.
  8. Apples decrease diabetes risk.  From a 2012 study, apples, as well as pears and blueberries, were linked to a lower risk of type II diabetes.  Researchers attribute the benefit to a class of antioxidants, anthocyanins, that give fruits and vegetables their purple, blue and red colors.
  9. Apples help in weight loss.  Flavonoid-rich fruits like apples have been linked by Harvard scientists to lower weight gain over many years.  The class of flavonoids called anthocyanins have been linked to the most weight control.

Putting It Into Practice

  • Buy organic when possible: Because apples are vulnerable to worms and other insects, the conventionally grown varieties are heavily sprayed with pesticides.  Therefore it is best to buy organically grown varieties.  Also, always wash fruit before eating.
  • Eat the peel: Apples are bursting with vitamins, minerals, fiber, and antioxidants.  It turns out that most of these nutrients are in the peel.
  • Eat fresh and in salads: Apples are great eaten fresh or cut up into slices and tossed with field greens, toasted pecans and a light vinaigrette in a delicious salad.  Also try apple slices on your favorite sandwich.
  • Cook them: Apples can be cooked in a myriad of ways – baked into pies, crisps, and tarts; added to poultry stuffing; and made into jelly, apple butter, and sauce.
  • Try pears: If you don’t like apples or can’t find them, pears are a tasty alternative.
  • A balanced diet is best: While apples are healthy, it is best to include other fruits to meet your daily fruit quota.  So in addition to apples, also eat the colors of the rainbow (blue, purple, red, yellow, green, orange) for better total health.
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